This is 6th lecture of Computer Applications subject, #IT and OfficeAutomation course For MBA/MCom/BBA/BCom. Today, Today the topic of this lecture is Operating Systems. We will learn or explore what is Hardware, Software, and basin Information Technology concepts in this lecture.
The Operating System
An operating system (OS) is a special type of system software that is responsible for overall management and controlling hardware and software resources and provides different services for computer programs and users. It provides a user interface, plate-form and interpretation services between user and computer. MS Windows, Linux, Sun Solaris and Ubunto etc are the examples of Operating systems for Computers. Android is a very popular mobile operating system now a days.
Types of Operating System
Similarly there are two types of Operating systems in the computer literature. Single user operating system and multi user operating system. We can classify OS on the basis of the its interface provided to users that are command line Operating System and Graphical User Interface OS.
Single-user operating systems allow only a single user to run and user operating system at a time. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, and the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time.
Command line and Graphical Interface
Similarly for a computer to be operated by a user requires an interface.However The user interface is usually referred to as a shell provided by an OS. Moreover The oldest Operating system DOS was used though command line environment. Users types command in a shell to run a program, to access folder, to copy a file or folder and etc.
Graphical user interface (GUI) provides a visual environment to the users of an OS. All computer hardware, software and programs are represented as icons and the mouse and other graphical input devices are used to interact with these graphical interface elements. Windows, dialog boxes and menus etc are the basic building blocks of any GUI.
Most of the modern OSs support graphical user interfaces (GUI), and often include them. However The Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Solaris etc are the best examples of GUI operating systems.
Popular Operating systems
- Microsoft Windows
- Mac OS (OS X)
- Chrome OS
Introduction to Microsoft windows
Microsoft Windows (or simply Windows) is a most popular graphical user interface (GUI) operating systems by Microsoft corporation. It is the very first GUI Operating system. However It was followed by the old MS DOS, a command line Microsoft OS. Moreover it was introduced as a first GUI operating on November 20, 1985.
The Microsoft Windows dominated the world’s personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984. However, since 2012, thanks to the massive growth of smartphones, Windows sells less than Android, which became the most popular operating system in 2014, when counting all of the computing platforms each operating system runs on; in 2014, the number of Windows devices sold were less than 25% of Android devices sold. Moreover, comparisons across different markets are not fully relevant; and for personal computers, Windows is still the most popular operating system.
Versions of Windows
- Windows 10
- windows 8
- Similarly windows 7 is also included
- Windows vista
- Windows xp
- the last is Windows 2000
Components of Windows OS
- Desktop :The desktop is the main screen area that you see after you turn on your computer and log on to Windows. Like the top of an actual desk, it serves as a surface for your work. When you open programs or folders, they appear on the desktop. Moreover You can also put things on the desktop, such as files and folders, and arrange them however you want.
Similarly the taskbar is the long horizontal bar at the bottom of your screen. However Unlike the desktop, which can get obscured by open windows, the taskbar is almost always visible. It has three main sections:
The Start button, which opens the Start menu.
Middle section, which shows you which programs and files you have open and allows you to quickly switch between them.
The notification area, which includes a clock and icons (small pictures) that communicate the status of certain programs and computer settings.
Moreover You’re likely to use the middle section of the taskbar the most, so let’s look at it first.
- Start Menu :
However the Start menu is the main gateway to your computer’s programs, folders, and settings. It’s called a menu because it provides a list of choices, just as a restaurant menu does. However as “start” implies, it’s often the place that you’ll go to start or open things.
- Control Panel