Today we will discuss “Learning and Retention in psychology”. The Video lecture is recorded in Hindi/URDU from these series of Introduction to Psychology Lectures in URDU/ Hindi. Learning is process which starts from birth and continues to death. (گود سے گور تک سیکھنے کا عمل). What we think about learning? Memorizing, knowing, getting knowledge •یا د ہو جانا، کسی شے کا جاننا، علم حاصل کرنا. But this is not only learning……. Learning is change and modification in behaviors. It is not only attaining knowledge.
- 1. What is learning in psychology?
- 2. What are definitions of learning?
- 3. What are factors and elements learning?
- 4. What are changes of learning?
- 5. What are different types of learning in psychology?
Learning in psychology in Hindi/URDU | Introduction to Psychology Lectures in Urdu and Hindi. Psy101 Short lectures and BBA-104 online lectures for BS Business Administration and b.com hons degree of Punjab university. #learning #learninginpsychology #psychology #PSY101 #BBA104.
Learning changes the behavior of a man lived in a jungle when move to city life. Learning is based on intrinsic. Every living organism is born with some innate tendencies to adjust himself in his environment. Example is ducking start swimming just after it comes out of eggshell. Human child just after birth, learn drinking milk.
Definitions of Learning
- Woodworth: It is a process of development in an individual’s behaviour on the basis of exercise and reinforcement.
- Floyd L. Ruch: It is a process which brings about changes in the individuals way of responding as a result of contact with aspects of environment.
- Henry E. Garrett: It is the result of physical and mental activity responding to the new are changing circumstances.
- Hilgard: It is a process which suggests a new or changed activity.
- Herbert: It is a change in behaviour based on experience.
- L.D. Crow: It is a continuous change in an individual’s behaviour according to the needs of life.
Factors or fundamental elements
- Arousal (جوش، مشتعل) is your curiosity ( (تجسسinstinct of question about any thing what is it, how is it, why is it.
- Motivation : is a goal directed activity. It is the needs, desires, wants or drives within the individuals.
- Reinforcement (کمک، حوصلہ افرائی کا عمل) : it can exceeds the rate of learning. Positive enforcement like prizes increase the process of the learning and negative in the form of punishment weakens the learning process.
- Association : is also an factor by which we learn. Like election
Changes by learning
- Physical : when a person leans to do dome physical work for example learn to ride a cycle. He has to maintain his balance, with practice.
- Neural : when the child starts riding a cycle , the neural resistance is the difficulty.
- Mental : learning brings about mental changes in an individual. When you start learning some task u need active attention but with passage of time you need less or passive attention.
- Psychological changes means, in start of learning you have less confidence and in the end of learning you have greater confidence.
Types of learning
- Learning is a purposive action. It only occurs when the learner is ready to learn. Following are the types of learning.
- Trial and error
- Observational learning or cognitive
- Insight learning
- Learning by conditioning
- Classical conditioning
- Instrumental conditioning Operant conditioning
Trial and error
•It is the method in which the on successful activities are left and the successful activities are continued. Trial and error needs little intelligence. The lower animals purely learn by it. •It is basically the method used by the animals but the human beings especially children use the method of trial and error in learning and new task. •For example children learn to to use mobile with trial and error method.
Observational or cognitive Learning- Two Cats
•Observational learning are learning by imitation results from watching others behaviour. It is an indirect learning. It does not need the direct experience for the occurrence of learning. This is also called modelling. Models are the person serving as an example to the observer. If Behaviour of model is a appreciated than the observer may imitate are copy the behaviour. •Cognitive learning is also observational learning. It involves various mental processes to recognize things and to retain them in memory and to select the important.
•Kohler is famous for learning by Insight. He conducted experiments on monkeys and proved that higher animals make use of their intelligence as the situation provides them a chance to utilize it. He hung a bunch of Bananas with the rope in the ceiling and kept it box nearby. he provided in nature environment to the monkeys. Send the monkeys in that room and how monkeys try to get Bananas. Soon the monkeys saw the box and he dragged it, placed beneath the Bananas climbed up the box and got the Bananas. •It proved by the observation and experiments that human learning is based more on Intelligence then on trial and error.
Learning by conditioning
•Learning by condition is also known as learning by Association. The law of Association is the formation of association our relationship between two stimuli are events which are spatially are temporarily situated nearest to each other. For example the thunder is expected after lightning. This method is very basic in skill and education. •There are three types of conditional learning. Classical learning involves natural way of responding. Instrumental conditioning is conducted on experiments and instruments. Operant learning occurs as a result of certain positive or negative consequences of learning.
Factors of learning
Methods of measuring student learning are often characterized as summative or formative assessments:
- Summative assessments – tests, quizzes, and other graded course activities that are used to measure student performance. They are cumulative and often reveal what students have learned at the end of a unit or the end of a course. Within a course, summative assessment includes the system for calculating individual student grades.
- Formative assessment – any means by which students receive input and guiding feedback on their relative performance to help them improve. It can be provided face-to-face in office hours, in written comments on assignments, through rubrics, and through emails.