This lecture is based on Online Lecture video of Biological Basis of Behavior in URDU Hindi | Introduction to Psychology BBA104 | PSY101 short lectures.
The physical structure of the body plays an important role in the behavior of an individual. The most important physical structure for psychologists is the nervous system. The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinal cord to various glands (غدود) and muscles, it also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord(ریڑھ کی ہڈی) and brain. Topics of the Video Lecture
- 1. What is biological basis of behaviour?
- 2. what are neuron and its types?
- 3. what is brain and function of brain?
- 4. what is central nervous system?
- 5. what is organization of Nervous system?
- 6. what is peripheral nervous system?
- 7. what is somatic nervous system?
- 8. what is autonomic nervous system?
Biological basis of behavior
The physical structure of the body plays an important role in the behavior of an individual. The most important physical structure for psychologists is the nervous system. •The nervous system carries orders from the brain and spinalcord to various glands (غدود) and muscles, it also carries signals from stimuli receptors to the spinal cord(ریڑھ کی ہڈی) and brain. •If you wanted to blink your eye a signal would be created in the brain, then it would be transported by neurons to the muscle controlling the eyelid(پپوٹا).
•The base of the nervous system is the neuron. Neurons are cells that are specialized for communicating information. They are the basic tissue and element of the nervous system. •Neurons have a basic structure of:
- –One cell body
- –One axon
- One or more dendrites
The cell body (or soma) is the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus. The soma makes use of nutrients to supply energy for neuronal activity.Axons are organelles (specialized cellular part) that carry information away from the cell body. Axons may be as small as several microns or as long as several meters in giraffes and whales. The axons main job is to send a signal to the dendrites of another neuron, but some say that they may also receive signals in certain situations. Each neuron has only one axon, but the axon may have branches with what are called terminal buttons at its end. Dendrites are organelles that sense the neurotransmitter secreted by the axon of another neuron. Most neurons have more than one dendrite. Dendrites and axons do not directly touch each other; there is a gap, called a synapse.
Types of neurons
1.Sensory neurons or incoming – that receive stimuli from the external world and carry them to brain.
2.Motor neuron or out going – takes message from the brain and carry to muscles and gland for responding to stimuli
3.Inter-neuron – or associative neuron are located in the brain and spinal cord. They connect the impulse form the axon fiber to dendrite fiber or motor neuron.
Organization Nervous system
The neurons can all be placed in one of two systems, the central nervous system or the peripheral nervous system.
- –The central nervous system (CNS) – includes the neurons in the brain and spinal cord
- –The peripheral nervous system (PNS) – connect CNS with sense receptors, glands and muscles.
- Somatic nervous system (SNS) – transmit sensatory input and motor output
- Autonomic nervous system (ANS)– regulate the inter organs like heart beat etc.
Organization The central Nervous system
The central nervous system has a fundamental role in the control of behavior. It contains the brain and the spinal cord which are both encased in bone which shows their importance. Both the brain and spinal cord receive signals from the afferent neurons(sensory neurons) and send signals to muscles and glands through efferent neurons(Motor neuron ).
Structure and function of brain
The brain is split up into three major layers, the hindbrain is the first, the second is the midbrain, and the forebrain is last. The hindbrain is a well protected central core of the brain and includes the cerebellum, reticular formation, and the brain stem. The cerebellum plays an important role in the integration of sensory perception and motor output. The brain stem contains the pons, and the medulla oblongata. The pons relays sensory information between the cerebellum and cerebrum. The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. It controls autonomic functions such as breathing and vomiting, and relays nerve signals between the brain and spinal cord. The reticular formation is a part of the brain which is involved in stereotypical actions, such as walking, sleeping, and lying down.
Brain activity measurement
In the past only two methods of observation were available. The first was observing individuals who have received brain damage and assume that the part of the brain that was damaged controlled the behavior or sense that had changed. The second was connecting electrodes to the outside of someone’s head and recording the readings. Newer methods include computed tomography (CT scan), positron emission tomography (PET scan), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and superconductive quantum interference devices (SQUID).
The peripheral nervous system (PNS)
Any part of the nervous system that is not part of the central nervous system is part of the peripheral nervous system. The nerves in the peripheral nervous system are split up into the autonomic and somatic.
- –The somatic connect the central nervous system to sensory organs (such as the eye and ear) and muscles.
- –While the autonomic connect other organs of the body, blood vessels and glands.
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)
It transmit information about external stimuli from skin muscles and joints and make is aware of strain, pain and temperature. It is further divided into –Sensory input means that sensory impulse or message of the external stimulus affecting receptors of any sense organs receptor is taken to the concerned brain area to determine the sensation. –Motor output means the message of the brain to the concerned body muscles for determining a reactions to the stimulus. –Both determine the behavior of individual with S(stimuli), O (organ ) R (Response or reaction) S -> O <- R
Autonomic Nervous System (SNS)
It is located at the external side of spine in from of spinal cord having two parallel lines of ganglions. Its fine nerve fibers are connected to each other. The nerves from this ganglion go to heart, lung and stomach etc. It is free from control of brain and spinal cord. It is self regulating and controls the glands and internal organs. Its nerve centers are found in the medulla. Its nerves are related to survival of life.
The glandular systems
The body has two types of glandular systems: the endocrine, which generally secrete (چھپانا) hormones through the bloodstream, and the exocrine which secretefluids to the outer surfaces of the body, such as sweating. Exocrine glands release their secretions into ducts which in turn release them onto the surface of organs. Examples of exocrine glands are sweat glands, salivary glands, mammary glands, etc. The pancreas is both an exocrine as well as an endocrine gland.
Importance of Endocrine Gland system
In the development of behavior and personality, EGS is of very importance after nervous system. Both works in close cooperation. EGS is ductless glands well supplied with blood vessels.
Biological Basis of Behavior in URDU Hindi | Introduction to Psychology BBA104 | PSY101
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