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The Topics which are covered in this lecture are
School of thoughts
Earlier School of thoughts
Behaviorist / Behavioral Approach
Review of last lectures | History of Psychology in Urdu / Hindi | Psychology Lectures in Urdu and Hindi Lecture 3
•What is psychology?
•Types of psychology
•mind and consciousness
School of Thoughts | Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•Wilhelm Wundt, in Germany, established the foundations of modern psychology in 1879. He wanted to study, experimentally, the conscious experience of individuals. As discussed earlier, the different schools of thought gradually emerged after psychology took this scientific turn. These schools were basically different ways of observation, description, understanding, and prediction of psychological phenomena; in the present context, mental processes and behavior
Earlier School of Thoughts | Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The earlier schools that paved the way for further developments in modern psychology were
•Structuralism: focused on studying the conscious experience by looking into its individual parts or elements.
•Functionalism: focused on what the mind does and how it does.
•Gestalt psychology: focused on studying the whole experience of a person rather than breaking it into individual components.
•Psychodynamic School: focuses on the unconscious forces that drive/ motivate human behavior.
•Behaviorist / Behavioral School: focuses on studying the behavior that is observable and overt.
Prevalent Approaches / Models / Perspectives |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•Today, we can see at least approaches or models of dealing with the psychological phenomena.
•Behaviorist / Behavioral Approach
Biological approach |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The psychological model that views behavior from the perspective of biological functioning. The role of brain, genes, neurotransmitters, endocrine glands etc.
•How the individual nerve cells are joined together, how the inheritance of certain characteristics from parents and other ancestors influences behavior, how the functioning of the body affects hopes and fears, what behaviors are due to instincts, and so on.
•Psychologists using the biological model view even more complex kinds of behaviors such as emotional responses e.g. anxiety, as having critical biological components.
Psychodynamic Approach |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The approach that concentrates on the belief that behavior is motivated by the inner forces, over which individuals have little control. Founded by the Viennese physician Sigmund Freud in early 1900s, supporters of psychodynamic perspective give importance to the inner unconscious experiences and the forces that led that behavior.
•Although many of the basic principles of psychodynamic thinking have been highly criticized, the model grown out of Freud’s work has provided a way not only for treating mental disorders but also for understanding everyday phenomena such a prejudice and aggression.
Behaviorist / Behavioral Approach |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The psychological model that focuses on the obvious observable behavior. The model emerged as a reaction to the earlier approaches that emphasized the significance of hidden, underlying, predetermined forces.
•The behaviorists suggest that observable behavior alone should be the main area of interest to psychology.
Humanistic Approach |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The psychological model, that suggests that people are in control of their lives. It is considered as one of the most recent approaches to psychology. This approach rejected the view, that predetermined, automatic, biological forces, unconscious processes or the environment determines behavior.
•On the contrary, it proposes that people themselves decide about their lives. A failure in being capable of doing so leads to psychological problems. It also stresses the idea that people, by nature, tend to move towards higher levels of maturity and maximum potential.
Cognitive Approach |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The psychological model that focuses on how people know, understands, and thinks about the world.
•Main emphasis is on how people understand of the world, and their thinking, affects their responses;
•How it may lead to positive or negative psychological consequences, and even health-related outcomes.
Structuralism |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•The school of thought that focused upon the study of mind and conscious experience: consciousness, thinking, and emotions. They used introspection as their method of study.
•Focused upon the structure and operations of the mind rather than studying whole things and phenomenon. Hence named as Structuralism.
•Emerged from the work of Wilhelm Wundt to study the “building blocks of the mind”, and is generally known as the founder of “scientific psychology”. He proposed materialism.
•It was Elementalistic
• The structuralists sought to look at individual elements first, and then combine parts into a whole, rather than study the variety of behavior directly.
•It was Mentalistic
•Structuralism studied only verbal reports of human conscious experience and awareness, ignoring the study of subjects who could not report their introspection (reflection).
Functionalism |Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•Founded by William James, also known as the founder of American Psychology.
•Emphasized “function” rather than “Structure” of human consciousness i.e., what the mind does
•Focused upon the way humans adapt to their environment; Examined the ways in which behavior allows people to satisfy their needs
•Functionalists were especially interested in education and applied psychology
•Observation, interviews, and testing of a person over a long period of time: made possible to observe and record the subject’s development and his reaction to different circumstance.
•John Dewey – School Psychology – •James Rowland Angell – mind and environment
•Harvey A. Carr – cultural products
Gestalt Psychology | Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•An approach that focuses on the organization of perception and thinking in a ‘‘whole” sense rather than on the individual elements of perception.
•Instead of considering the individual parts that make up thinking, gestalt psychologists concentrated on how people consider individual elements as units or wholes.
•In contrast to the structuralist approach of breaking down conscious experience into elements, or focusing upon the structure, the Gestalt school emphasized the significance of studying any phenomenon in its overall form.
•The word gestalt means “Configuration” •The main concept that the Gestaltists posed was that the “WHOLE” is more than the sum of its parts, and it is different from it too.
•The concept of Gestalt applies to everything, objects, ideas, thinking processes and human relationships. Any phenomenon in its entirety may be much greater than when it is seen in a disintegrated form
•Three German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler were regarded as the founders of gestalt school as each one of them had done significant work in his respective field.
Associationism | Psychology school of thoughts in urdu
•It means relationship between Stimuli(a detectable change in the internal or external environment. The ability of an organism or organ to respond to external stimuli is called sensitivity) and reaction on the basis of experiments.
•Focuses on past experiences •Aristotlem Locke, Hobbes, Barkley, Hume, Ebbinghaus, Muller Morgan Pavloc and Skinner
•Ebbinghaus invented non sense syllabus and meaning full words •Muller proved that contiguity(the sequential occurrence or proximity of stimulus and response, causing their association in the mind.) makes an association and relationship between two things. Mother and Child
•Focus on current existence of human and their motives, self perception psychological problems
•Human as an emerging (evolving) individual who is constantly becoming and making choice.
•Oppose blind forces of wishes. •Jean Paul Sartre says “ we are nothing but we make of ourselves”
Applications of Psychology careers and specialization
•Biological psychology gives us scientific knowledge about how organisms are born, repaired and reproduced. Human nature
•Development : gives us knowledge about different stages of human development : birth, infant, child, adulthood, death.
•All these school of thoughts are different branches of psychology.
Psychology school of thoughts in urdu / Hindi | Psychology lectures in urdu | Lecture 4
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