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The Topics which are covered in this lecture are
1:HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
5:Theories to remember
HISTORICAL ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY
Throughout some twelve or so decades, psychology has led an active life, developing gradually into a true science. As part of evolution, it has produced a number of conceptual models, approaches, theories, interrelated ideas and concepts used to explain phenomena, that has guided the work being carried out.
Earlier views of the philosophies and concepts were important because they gave the outline with the help of which modern ideas were developed and further formulated.
“Psychology has a long past, but only a short history.”(Hermann Ebbinghaus, 1908)
Wilhelm Wundt set the foundations of modern psychology in 1879, by establishing the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.
Man was always interested about human behavior, nature of consciousness, origin of “madness”, emotions and much more about other people’s nature.
Control and desirable modification of behavior interested man; he always wanted to become powerful and be able to make others do what he wanted them to do.
Wilhelm Wundt | History of Psychology
•Philosophers’ thinking about thinking continued until the birth of psychology as we know it, on a December day in 1879, in a small, third-floor room at Germany’s University of Leipzig.
•There, two young men were helping an austere(serious), middle-aged professor, Wilhelm Wundt, create an experimental apparatus.
•Their machine measured the time lag between people’s hearing a ball hit a platform and their pressing a telegraph key (Hunt, 1993).
•Curiously, people responded in about one-tenth of a second when asked to press the key as soon as the sound occurred—and in about two tenths of a second when asked to press the key as soon as they were consciously aware of perceiving the sound. (To be aware of one’s awareness takes a little longer.)
•Wundt was seeking to measure “atoms of the mind”—the fastest and simplest mental processes.
•Thus began what many consider psychology’s first experiment, launching the first psychological laboratory, staffed by Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students.
Historical Roots of phycology | History of Psychology
•Today psychology is considered as the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. But the case was always not so. Initially the soul; then mind and conscious experience, and lastly observable behavior.
•In 1590, Rudolf Goeckel used the term “psychology”. This word is the combination of two Greek words “ psyche” and “ logos”, the former means the “ soul” and the later “ broad knowledge”. Thus literally, psychology means the science of soul.
•Aristotle gave a very important place to soul in human life. Life has no meaning without soul. But he couldn’t explain the relationship of the soul to the body.
•Later on, the spiritual aspect was discarded altogether and substituted by a more comprehensive word “mind”.
•Psychology was also defined as the “science of mind”. But psychologists were never satisfied with this definition because mind was a unclear term that could not be defined in objective terms.
•Therefore the later psychologists switched their positions and began investigations into behavior that was an objective and observable phenomenon.
•So it should not be surprising for a student of psychology that definitions of psychology have varied considerably over the years according to the theoretical orientation of particular “schools”.
Structuralism | History of Psychology
•Psychology has also been defined as the science of consciousness. Structuralism, an important early school of thought in psychology, considered psychology as the study of conscious experience. It was coined by Edward Bradford.
•In the words of Wilhelm Wundt, “psychology has to investigate that which we call internal processes or experiences—- i.e., our own sensations and feelings, our thoughts.
•This definition of psychology as a science of consciousness is now discarded and rejected on the following grounds:
•Modern day psychology does not believe in consciousness as it used to. Mental processes have substituted consciousness.
•Modern psychologists define it as a science of behavior, both of animals and humans. It was Watson, the founder of the behaviorist school of thought, who postulated this definition.
Theories to remember | History of Psychology
•Structuralism an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the structural elements of the
•Functionalism a school of psychology that focused on how our mental and behavioral processes function—how they
enable us to adapt, survive, and flourish.
•William James and Mary Whiton Calkins James, legendary teacher-writer, mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.
•Behaviorism the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
Humanistic psychology historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual’s potential for personal growth.
Cognitive neuroscience the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language).
History of Psychology in Urdu / Hindi | Psychology Lectures in Urdu and Hindi Lecture 3
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BBA-104 Short Lecture 3 Notes | History of Phycology
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